Fiat Group’s engagement in the fight against climate change is demonstrated by the general downward trend in CO2 emissions from our production processes compared with the 2010 baseline.
As with energy, the 2013 CO2 results were negatively affected by the increased production volumes in the NAFTA region and the adverse weather conditions.
Consequently, in 2013, total CO2 emissions increased by 5.4% at Group plants, for a total of about 4 million tons, despite the 2,400 energy projects that were launched in 2013, which saved €62 million(1).
The CO2 emissions per vehicle produced at the Mass-Market and Premium Brand plants decreased 15.5% in the last four years, falling from 0.612 tons per vehicle produced in 2010 to 0.517 tons per vehicle produced(2).
Direct and indirect CO2 emissions
Fiat Group worldwide (thousands of tons of CO2)
|Total CO2 emissions||4,178||3,965||4,196||4,383|
Direct and indirect CO2 emissions per unit of production
Mass-Market and Premium Brand assembly and stamping worldwide (tons of CO2 per vehicle produced)
Target 2020: -32% vs 2010
In 2013, the Group continued to use renewable energy sources, slightly increasing the percentages reached by each company. In Europe, the vast majority of renewable energy purchased by the Group is certified by the supplier, while on the South American market electricity purchased is certified as coming almost entirely from hydroelectric sources. Furthermore, within the Group there are some plants that take advantage of solar energy to produce renewable energy for electricity or heating.
Total energy from renewable energies used in Group production processes covered 20.9% of the total consumption, excluding Chrysler Group, and 9.7% of total energy consumed, including Chrysler Group.
(1) Data is prorated to also include carry-over from projects launched in 2012.
(2) Number of vehicles produced and plant list are confidential for competitive reasons and therefore are not publicly published.
Paint Process Energy Savings at the Sterling Heights Assembly Plant (SHAP)
Major energy savings are represented by the new paint shop at SHAP in the US. Painting demands more energy than any other stage of the production process in the automotive industry. In paint shops, the paint booth in particular consumes the most energy, since it requires around 100,000 cubic meters of air per minute at a specific temperature and humidity. Booths consume natural gas, electricity and water in order to meet stringent process control requirements.
SHAP's new paint shop covers approximately 100,000 square meters and was conceived to guarantee high energy efficiency, using a "cascading air / recirculating air" process to significantly reduce energy and water usage, designed to recirculate 90% of the air.
This innovation provides annual energy savings of approximately €1.3 million, avoiding approximately 24,000 tons of potential CO2emissions through energy reduction, while also resulting in a significant reduction in water use.
Participation in emissions trading programs
In 2013, the Group only had four directly-owned power generation plants that qualified for the European Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS), under ETS Directive (2003/87/CE), all of them in Italy. These were located at the Italian manufacturing sites of FGA engines and transmissions in Pratola Serra and Grugliasco, Magneti Marelli in Modugno, Teksid in Carmagnola and Ferrari in Maranello. These five sites in 2013 represented approx. 5.3% of the Group’s CO2 emissions, for a total of 63,112 tons of CO2.
Nitrogen and sulfur oxides (NOX and SOX) and dust
Direct emissions of NOx, SOx and Dust
Fiat Group worldwide (tons)
(1) Estimated emissions based on direct fuel consumption
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)
VOC are chemical compounds that may have a potential and indirect impact on climate change, and contribute to the formation of ground level ozone and smog.
For many years, Fiat Group has introduced important technical and operational developments in its paint operations such as more efficient paint application and using paints that contain less solvent in order to progressively reduce the associated VOC emissions(1).
Very substantial reductions have been achieved in Mass-Market and Premium Brand plants, with an average of approximately 28.0 g/m2 of VOC in 2013 compared with an average of approximately 32.1 g/m2 in 2010 (-12.8%) and 65.4 in 2007(2) (-57.2%) .
Since Mass-Market and Premium Brand assembly and stamping plants represent more than 95% of VOC emissions, the average of all Group plants worldwide shows similar results and trends. For further details, see the interactive Sustainability Report online.
Emissions of VOC
Mass-Market and Premium Brand assembly and stamping plants worldwide (g/m2)
Target 2020: -25% vs 2010
(1) VOC emissions are calculated with the mass balance equation, according to the "Operating Guideline for monitoring environmental KPIs - VOC" and apply to the entire Fiat Group' paint shops.
(2) 2007 scope differs from 2012 as Chrysler Group LLC was included starting in 2010.
Presence of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) in equipment
Some equipment used for cooling, air conditioning and climate control contains ODS which are potentially harmful to the ozone layer, the part of the upper atmosphere that protects the earth from ultraviolet rays. In the event of an accident, these substances may leak and contribute to ozone layer depletion. As a consequence, Fiat Group believes that constant monitoring of this equipment is essential to prevent unexpected ODS leakage. No leaks of these substances were reported during 2013.
In addition, following an inventory of plants and equipment containing ODS, an action plan was developed in 2010 to specify measures to replace these substances by 2014 at all plants worldwide. Chrysler Group was included in the inventory for the first time in 2012, and committed to eliminate ODS as equipment is replaced. These substances will be substituted with more environmentally compatible gases and/or alternative substances. In 2013, ODS in equipment at Group plants worldwide was reduced by 6.4% compared with 2012.
Equipment containing PCBs and PCTs
Certain electrical equipment (e.g., transformers) uses cooling liquids containing Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polychlorinated Terphenyls (PCTs). These substances are classified as hazardous and are subject to restrictions relating to their use, production and sale, although this varies from country to country. For a number of years, Fiat Group has worked toward the progressive elimination of these substances ahead of regulatory deadlines. As a result of the latest actions implemented, as of 2011 PCBs and PCTs are no longer present at Group plants.
With the objective of minimizing noise at our plants to the greatest extent possible, Fiat Group continually monitors noise emitted into the external environment. For this purpose, the Group implements the policies provided by the Noise Management Guidelines, which are in effect across all our plants.